ADOPTA has been involved in research efforts since the beginning, when we began to invite researchers to the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve. Although most of the publications we have participated in came from the reserve, the scope of our work has grown in recent years as we have started funding outside research projects and partnered with SELVA to study Neotropical migratory birds in Panama.

Publications to date

Complete list of Publications


Weir, J.T., E. Bermingham, M.J. Miller, J. Klicka & M.A. González. 2008. Phylogeography of a morphologically diverse Neotropical montane species, the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingusophthalmicus). Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 47(2): 650-644.

Two individuals of C. tacarcunae examined in this study were obtained from the Cerro Chucantí Private Nature Reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
The Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus) is distributed in Neotropical cloud-forests from Mexico to Argentina and contains 25 subspecies divided into eight subspecies groups based on biogeography, eye coloration, presence of a postocular spot and chest band. All of Central America is occupied by a single subspecies group; whereas the Andes are believed to be occupied by seven additional subspecies groups. We used five mitochondrial genes to investigate the phylogeography and possible species limits of the ophthalmicuscomplex. A total of 14 monophyletic lineages were uncovered within the ophthalmicuscomplex, including three clades currently classified as separate species (C. semifuscus, inornatus and tacarcunae). Divergence estimates for these clades date between 0.8 and 5.2 million years ago (Ma). Contrary to expectations based on morphological diversity, phylogeographic structure was greatest in Mexico and Central America and weakest in the Andes. Morphological and genetic divergences were not significantly correlated and most morphologically defined subspecies groups were not supported. Our evidence suggests the ophthalmicus complex originated in Mexico ca. 6.0 Ma (million years ago) and spread south into the Andes ca. 4.7 Ma before the completion of the Isthmus of Panama. Three genetically divergent lineages of ophthalmicus that formed in the Andes possess a complex checkerboard distribution, with a single lineage represented by disjunct populations from Venezuela and the southern Andes, while intervening populations in Ecuador and Central Peru form two genetically and morphologically divergent lineages.


Miranda, R.J., & S.E. Bermúdez. 2010. Strophaeus sebastiani, new species of Barychelidae (Araneae: Mygalomorphae) from Panama. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 47: 175-179.

Strophaeus sebastiani was the first new species described from the Cerro Chucantí Private Nature Reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
Se describe Strophaeus sebastiani sp. n. (Barychelidae) en base a un macho y una hembra recolectados en Cerro Chucantí, provincia de Darién, al oriente de la República de Panamá. Este constituye el primer registro de este género para Panamá, ampliando su distribución norte. Se ilustran por primera vez las espermatecas de las hembras de este género.
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Bermúdez, S., R. Miranda, Y. Zaldívar, P. González, G. Berguido, D. Trejos, J.M. Pascale, & M. Labruna. 2012. Detection of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wild and domestic mammals from the Cerro Chucanti private reserve and from neighboring towns, Panamá, 2007-2010. Biomédica 32(2): 189-195.

Our founder/director (Guido Berguido) is one of the authors on this paper. While improving our understanding of possible risks present within the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA, this paper also contributed to our overall knowledge of the mammals present within the reserve.
Introduction. Ectoparasites are the main vectors of rickettsiosis. In Panama, however, limited data are available concerning the arthropod species that serve as vectors or reservoirs.
Objectives. Data are presented concerning the presence of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wildlife and domestic animals in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve and in neighboring villages.
Materials and Methods. Nine humans, 95 domestic mammals and 48 wild mammals were examined. Twenty-one species of ectoparasites were obtained, including fleas, lice, ticks and mites. These were preserved in 95% ethanol. Later, the DNA was extracted from the ticks and fleas and analyzed by molecular techniques to detect presence of Rickettsia spp.
Results. Of a total of 425 PCR reactions, 270 were negative and 155 positive. Among the positive samples, 86 PCR amplified for the gltA gene (55% of positives) and 41 of these also amplified the ompAgene. DNA of Rickettsia amblyommiiwas found in horse ticks (Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor nitens), dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and free-living nymphs of Amblyomma collected in the forest. Additionally, DNA of R. felis was found in Ctenocephalides felis dog ticks.
Conclusions. The presence of R. amblyommii and R. felis was detected in ticks and fleas of domestic animals in villages near Cerro Chucantí; however no Rickettsia DNA was found in ectoparasites of non-domestic wildlife.
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Méndez-Carvajal, P.J. 2012. Preliminary Primate Survey at the Chucanti Nature Reserve, Darien Province, Republic of Panama. Mesoamericana 16(3): 22-29.

This was the first primate study conducted within the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA, and the first study for these species in the entirety of Panama’s Darién province.
We carried out a preliminary study of the primate populations surviving in a protected forest of the Chucanti Natural Reserve, Darien Province. The study site is located in the Maje Mountain chain, on the frontier between the Panama and Darien Provinces (08·47´16.5” N, 078·27´01.4”W). With three km² of mature forest surrounded by fragmented forest and farming lands, the study site averages temperatures between 24-27 ºC and annual rainfall of 1,940.5 mm at an elevation of >1,250 m. We utilized line transect and triangulation methods. Three species of non-human primate were identified living in this forest: black-headed spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris), conforming by subgroups of four individuals (range: 1-13), with complete groups of at least 20 individuals and a total population of 60 individuals, with a population density of 9.3 ind/km²; the Ecuadorian mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis), with six troops in total, 14 individuals as average per group, 85 total individuals and density of 28.4 ind/km²; and the white-faced capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus capucinus), with only one group of six individuals and density of two ind/km². The results are similar with other primate densities calculated for other species of the same genus living in connected forest. Although the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) classified only the Darien black spider monkey as Critically Endangered, the three monkeys are locally threatened by bush meat hunting and commercial deforestation. This research is the first study for these species in Darien, which is part of a conservation initiative that pretend to minimize the high risk of extinction of those animals in Panama.
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Bezark, L.G., W.H. Tyson, & N.M. Schiff. 2013. New species of Cerambycidae from Panama, with new distribution records (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Zootaxa 3608(4): 273-277.

Both new species described in this paper were discovered in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA. One other species recorded from the reserve also represented a country record for Panama.
Two new species of Cerambycidae, Tessaropa elizabeth Bezark, sp. nov. (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Methiini) and Anelaphus cordiforme Tyson, sp. nov. (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Elaphidiini), are described from the western part of the Darien, Panama. Nine new country records for Panama are reported for the following species: Adetus linsleyi Martins & Galileo, Estola strandiella Breuning, Nubosoplatus inbio Swift, Paranisopodus heterotarsus Monné & Martins, Pempteurys sericans Bates, Rosalba costaricensis (Melzer), Tomopterus brevicornsaphansrochricansis (Lameere) and Oedudes bifasciata (Bates).
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Martins, U.R., & M.H.M. Galileo. 2013. New species and records of Cerambycinae and Lamiinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Neotropical Region. Zootaxa 3683(5): 571–580.

One of the new species (Epropetes tristis) described in this paper was discovered in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
New species are described in Cerambycinae, in Elaphidiini: Eurysthea parva sp. nov. from Ecuador (Loja); in Hexoplonini: Hexoplon rubriceps sp. nov. from Ecuador (Napo); in Neoibidionini: Cycnidolon praecipuum sp. nov. from Bolivia (Santa Cruz); in Pteroplatini: Pteroplatus caudatus sp. nov. from Colombia (Cundinamarca); Pteroplatus pallidicolor sp. nov. from Peru (Cajamarca); in Tillomorphini: Epropetes tristis sp. nov. from Panama (Darien) and Euderces elachys sp. nov. from Ecuador (Manabi). In Lamiinae, Agapanthiini: Trichohippopsis barbatulus sp. nov. from Ecuador (Manabi) is described. Chromatic variation in Gnomidolon pulchrum Martins, 1960 (Hexoplonini) is discussed. New records are given for: Eburodacrystola pickeli Melzer, 1928 and Eburodacrys cunusaia Martins, 1997 (Eburiini) for Bolivia; Tetranodus tropipennis Chemsak, 1977 (Tillomorphini) for Nicaragua and Ecuador; and Pteroplatus transversalis Breme, 1844 (Pteroplatini) for Ecuador.
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Batista, A., A. Hertz, G. Köhler, K. Mebert, & M. Vesely. 2014. Morphological variation and phylogeography of frogs related to Pristimantis caryophyllaceus (Anura: Terrarana: Craugastoridae) in Panama. Salamandra 50(3): 155-171.

This article shows how the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA can fit well into larger studies.
New World direct-developing frogs (Terrarana) are among the most diverse vertebrate groups in the world. Many Terrarana species are highly variable in colouration and morphology, often rendering it difficult to delineate species. Modern molecular and bioacoustic techniques are a relatively recent tool for understanding the various taxonomic entities. This affects also Pristimantis caryophyllaceus, a complex on which little research has previously been done. We examined the variation of morphology, genetics, and colouration in specimens affiliated to P. caryophyllaceus from Panama, using different Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) based on molecular phylogenetic lineages. Phylogeny, ecology, and distributional information for this species shed light on the position and species delineation of P. caryophyllaceus and its congeners in Panama. Our results demonstrate a high level of genetic diversity in P. caryophyllaceus -like populations from Panama, which in fact comprise three main lineages that are geographically separated. Specimens from eastern Panama tend to be larger, with more expanded finger disks and toe pads than specimens from western Panama. However, aside from the significant morphological differences between MOTUs, the extent of variation within each MOTU is very large. Based on our extensive and integrative analysis, we suggest treating the three MOTUs of P. caryophyllaceus populations as a single polymorphic species with very deep conspecific lineages as a result of the dynamic geological history of the Isthmus of Panama. The validity of the recently described P. educatoris is not supported by our results and we therefore synonymize it with P. caryophyllaceus.
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Batista, A., G. Köhler, K. Mebert, & M. Vesely. 2014. A new species of Bolitoglossa (Amphibia: Plethodontidae) from eastern Panama, with comments on other members of the adspersa species group from eastern Panama. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1(1): 96-121.

The new species of salamander described in this paper has only been discovered in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
We describe a new species of Bolitoglossa from Cerro Chucantí, Cordillera de Majé, Provincia de Darién, Panama. A phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data provides evidence for the assignment of the new taxon to the Bolitoglossa adspersaspecies group. The new species differs in color pattern and morphometrics from all other congeners found in eastern Panama. Additionally, we include comments on the other species of salamanders known to occur in the region.
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Cedeño, E.C, & A.C. Vallely. 2014. Some records of birds from Panama with remarks on the distribution of Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus momota. Cotinga 36: 111-113.

Many of the new sightings detailed in this article occurred in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
This article includes records of range extensions and new localities for bird species throughout Panama.
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Méndez-Carvajal, P.G. 2014. The Orion camera system, a new method for deploying camera traps in tree canopy to study arboreal primates and other mammals: a case study in Panamá. Mesoamericana 18(1): 9-23.

The Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA was one of the sites studied in this article, and the information received from the cameras has improved our understanding of the primate species living in the reserve.
Camera trapping has been a very useful and non-invasive tool in ecological studies, mainly for tropical birds and mammals, since the 1900s. Camera traps have been used in Panama, but were limited to studies on non-arboreal fauna. Since August 2010, the Fundación Pro-Conservación de los Primates Panameños (FCPP) has implemented a new way to observe non-human primates and other arboreal fauna using the “Orion Camera System” or OCS, which allows us to install camera traps within the intermediate stratum canopy without climbing trees. The OCS reduces the risk for the researcher, and the materials used are more economically viable compared to the equipment required for climbing trees. This technique allowed FCPP to lead the first long term camera trap projects in the canopy at international level, and the results will support conservation plans for Panamanian primates.
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Dauphin, G., N.S. Allen, J.A. Gudiño L., A. Sierra, & D. Reyes. 2015. New additions of liverwort species (Marchantiophyta) for the flora of Panama II. Brenesia 83-84: 16-21.

A liverwort observed in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA represented the first Central American record for the species (Otigoniolejeunea portoricensis).
Se comunican 13 nuevos registros de hepáticas para Panamá, de los cuales 8 son nuevos registros para Centroamérica. Se incluye en la flora panameña el género Thysananthus.
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Méndez-Carvajal, P., M. Peñafiel, A. Zapata, & G. Berguido. 2015. The panamanian climbing rat, mammalia, rodentia, cricetidae, Tylomys panamensis (Gray, 1873): new report in Darien. Technociencia 17(1): 47-56.

Our founder/director (Guido Berguido) is one of the authors on this paper. The new record of Tylomys panamansis in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA described in this paper represents a significant range extension and the first information on this species for more than 60 years.
This study reports a new record for Tylomys panamensis, increasing its range by 121 km, 66º NW from the original endemic distribution. It has been considered as Data Deficient by IUCN as no information has been published for almost 64 years. Based on our long term surveillance at the Darien’s canopy, using Orion Camera System (OCS), we have been able to obtain information about their circadian and monthly activity over the course of one year. The presence of T. panamensis remarks the importance of the largest National Park of the Mesoamerican region and claim urgency to be protected from its actual devastation, particularly the montane forest in the rest of the provinces of Darien and Panama.
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Múrria, C., A.T. Rugenski, M.R. Whiles, & A.P. Vogler. 2015. Long-term isolation and endemicity of Neotropical aquatic insects limit the community responses to recent amphibian decline. Diversity and Distributions 21: 938–949.

This paper establishes that the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve contains pristine habitat. The streams sampled within the reserve were free of chytrid fungus and expressed the highest levels of biodiversity in the study.
Objective Neotropical highland streams have shown diminished ecosystem functioning after amphibian extirpation infected by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. The loss of amphibians could affect communities of aquatic insects co‐occurring in these streams in various ways. We examined patterns of species and genetic diversity of these communities and their evolutionary history along the chytrid expansion gradient to elucidate potential community responses.
Location Six streams over a 320‐km transect in Panama affected by chytrid expansion from west to east for up to 14 years, and two apparently chytrid‐free streams in the east.
Methods Patterns of α‐ and β‐diversity were investigated at three hierarchical levels: genus, species and haplotypes. Genus identification was based on morphology, and putative species were inferred by grouping the DNA barcodes (749 cox1 sequences) with the GMYC method on all collected individuals of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Coleoptera and Plecoptera.
Results A total of 96 genera in 43 families (9 orders) of insects were encountered. Genus‐level α‐diversity was higher in the easternmost streams, possibly due to a separate biogeographical history, whereas β‐diversity was constant along the chytrid expansion gradient. Community DNA barcoding resulted in 426 cox1 haplotypes and 154 putative species, most of them limited to single sites. High β‐diversity along the gradient at both species and haplotype levels argues against community homogenization by migration in the wake of amphibian declines. In contrast, phylo‐β‐diversity was low, indicating community similarity at deep levels.
Main Conclusions Aquatic insect communities in this region are influenced by long‐term limited dispersion that generated high endemicity. The pattern persists mostly unperturbed after disease‐driven amphibian declines; hence, if indeed insects fill the niches vacated by tadpoles, they would originate from local communities rather than immigration. Given the unique evolutionary history and physical isolation of local assemblages, the ecosystem deterioration carries the risk of losing unique diversity.
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Batista, A., G. Köhler, K. Mebert, A. Hertz, & M. Vesely. 2016. An integrative approach to reveal speciation and species richness in the genus Diasporus (Amphibia: Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) in eastern Panama. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 178: 267-311.

One of the new species described in this paper (Diasporus majeensis) is only known to occur within the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
We have applied an integrative taxonomic approach, including bioacoustics, ecology, morphology, and molecular genetics (barcoding and phylogeography), to explore species richness in the genus Diasporus in eastern Panama, from where only Diasporus quidditus (Lynch, 2001) was previously known. During fieldwork in eastern Panama in 2011 and 2012 we found six additional species, four of which we are describing here as new to science, plus two species that are new for this region. We have evaluated the presence of Diasporus diastema (Cope, 1875) in eastern Panama by comparing morphological, genetic, and bioacoustic characters of specimens from near the type locality in central Panama with specimens from eastern Panama. We further describe and compare male advertisement calls of most Diasporusspecies. The phylogeographic analysis suggests the allopatric speciation of Diasporus species in eastern Panama following the completion of the Panamanian isthmus in the middle Miocene. Subsequent geological events concur with the vicariant evolution of different lineages in situ, suggesting eastern Panama to be a centre of endemism for this group of frogs. We present an integrative analysis of the species from eastern Panama and include an identification key for all species of the genus.
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Batista, A., K. Mebert, S. Lotzkat, & L.D. Wilson. 2016. A new species of centipede snake of the genus Tantilla (Squamata: Colubridae) from an isolated premontane forest in eastern Panama. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3(4): 948-960.

The new species described in this paper is only known to occur within the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve and was named in honor of our founder/director, Guido Berguido.
We describe a new species of Tantilla from Cerro Chucantí, Serranía de Majé, Provincia de Darién, Panama. We allocate this species to the reticulata section of the taeniata group and consider it most closely related to Tantilla reticulata, from which it can be distinguished by color pattern, pholidosis, and hemipenial morphology.
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Ortiz, O.O., R.M. Baldini, G. Berguido, & T.M. Croat. 2016. New species of Anthurium (Araceae) from Chucantí Nature Reserve, eastern Panama. Phytotaxa 255(1): 47-56.

Our founder/director (Guido Berguido) is one of the authors on this paper. Both new species described in this paper are found only within the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
In the present paper we describe two new endemic species of Anthurium, discovered during field trips to study the Araceae flora of the Chucantí Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural Chucantí) located in the province of Darién, Panama. Anthurium annularum sp. nov., a member of section Xialophyllium, is principally characterized by its hemiepiphytic climbing habit, stems with ring-shaped nodes with short internodes alternating with much longer internodes, a yellow-green spadix and pale green globose berries which are nearly translucent toward the base. A. chucantiense sp. nov., a member of section Polyneurium, is characterized by its epiphytic habit, short internodes at stem apex, terete petioles, blades with obscure primary lateral veins, greenish to pale orange spadix and narrowly ovoid, and bluntly pointed red-orange berries.
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Santos-Silva, A., L.G. Bezark, M.H.M. Galileo, & L. Li. 2016. Descriptions, transference and new records of Lamiinae from Central and South America (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Zootaxa 4170(1): 159-168.

One species of Lamiinae observed in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve represented a new record for Panama.
Two new species are described in Calliini: Callisema jirouxi sp. nov. from Ecuador and Colombicallia setosa sp. nov. from Costa Rica. Keys to species of Callisema and Colombicallia are provided. Psapharochrus alboguttatus (Melzer, 1935) is transferred to Alphus White, 1855. New country, department and state records are provided in Lamiinae.
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Bayly, N.J. 2017. The Neotropical Migration Corridor: Results Panama 2017, the autumn migration. Technical report NFP05. SELVA: Investigación para la Conservación en el Neotropico, ADOPTA Panama 15 pp.

The information within this report was largely gathered by ADOPTA’s field team, headed by our science director Chelina Batista.
A report from Panama of the ongoing study of neotropical migratory birds with the Neotropical Flyways Project.
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Croat, T.B., X. Delannay, & O.O. Ortiz. 2017. A Revision of Xanthosoma (Araceae). Part 2: Central America. Aroideana 40(2): 504-581.

Many of the records used for this paper are from the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
Eighteen species of Xanthosoma from Central America are treated including seven new species: X. cerrosapense Croat and O. Ortiz, X. hammelii Croat, Delannay and O. Ortiz X. knappiae Croat and Delannay, X. laselvaense Croat and Delannay, X. ortizii Croat, X. petaquillense Croat and X. pringlei Croat. A dichotomous key and illustrations of all species are provided. A taxonomic history is also provided for Xanthosoma.
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Flores, R., C. Black, & A. Ibáñez. 2017. A new species of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) with pendent inflorescence, from Chucantí Private Nature Reserve, eastern Panama. Phytokeys 77: 21-32.

The new species described in this paper has only been found in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA, and was named to honor our founder/director Guido Berguido.
Heliconia berguidoi (Heliconiaceae), a new species from premontane forest of eastern Panama, is described, illustrated and its conservation status evaluated. H. berguidoi bears pink flowers, an uncommon color in this group. It differs from the Colombian species Heliconia rhodantha and Heliconia sanctae-theresae, the most similar taxa, by the combination of a petiole glabrous except for the woolly base, a very long peduncle, the perianth pubescent at the apex and staminode with cuspidate apex. H. berguidoi is also similar to Heliconia pogonantha in all four of its varieties and to Heliconia ramonensis in two of its four varieties, but differs by a combination of the long peduncle, pink flowers and staminode with cuspidate apex. Fifty-six Heliconiaspecies have been found in Panama, eighteen of them endemic.
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Ledezma, J.G., & N.S. Allen. 2017. Morphology and distribution of Dolotortula mniifolia and Trachyphyllum dusenii (Bryophyta) in Panama. Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 52(2): 331-340.

Many of the observations in this publication were made in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
The genus Dolotortula and the species D. mniifolia, are recorded for the first time for Panama. Primary descriptions for the Central American populations of D. mniifolia exhibit branched stems and yellow leaf edge, in cross section, with 5-6 rows of thickened-walled cells. The morphology and geographic distribution of Trachyphyllum and the species T. dusenii, recently reported for Panama. Weakly serrulate periquecial leaves are reported for the first time for this species. The distribution of this species in Panama is the northernmost known from tropical America, and includes the only populations of the genus known for the Pacific slope. Maps are included with the updated geographic distribution for the two species.
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Pinto-da-Rocha, R., & C. Bragagnolo. 2017. Cladistic analysis of the family Nomoclastidae with descriptions of a new genus and eight new species (Opiliones, Laniatores). Invertebrate Systematics 31: 91-123.

One of the new species described in this paper (Quindina kuna) was discovered in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
The family Nomoclastidae is revised and, based on a cladistic analysis, Callcosma Roewer, 1932 is transferred to the family from Cranaidae. The monotypic genus Napostygnus Roewer, 1929, hitherto considered incertae sedis, is also assigned to Nomoclastidae. Zygopachylus Chamberlin, 1925 and Poassa Roewer, 1943 are synonymised under Quindina Roewer, 1914, consequently creating the new combinations Quindina limbata (Roewer, 1914) and Quindina albomarginis (Chamberlin, 1925). The new combination Quindina marginata (Roewer, 1963), comb. nov. is proposed, as the type-species of Deriacrus, D. simoni Roewer, 1932, is not congeneric with Deriacrus marginatus Roewer, 1963 and has the synapomorphies of Quindina, such as a row of large rounded tubercles on the lateral margin and enlarged tubercles on the dorsal scutum. A new genus and species are proposed, Kichua rheimsae, sp. nov., from Ecuador (type locality: Ecuador, Napo, Cantón Quijos, Parroquira Cozanga, Yanayacu Research Station). In addition, seven new species are herein described: Callcosma abrapatricia, sp. nov. (type locality: Peru, Moyobamba, Abra Patricia Private Conservation Area); Callcosma cofan, sp. nov. (type locality: Ecuador, Sucumbíos, Cabanas Cuyabeno); Callcosma barasana, sp. nov. (type locality: Colombia, Vaupés, Tararira, Estacción Biológica da Caparu); Quindina albiocularia, sp. nov. (type locality: Panama, Coclé, Valle de Antón); Quindina burbayar, sp. nov. (type locality: Panama, Reserva Natural Privada Burbayar); Quindina kuna, sp. nov. (type locality: Panama, Darién, Chucantí); and Quindina morae, sp. nov. (type locality: Panama, Gamboa, Sendero del Oleoducto).
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Vencl, F.V., X. Luan, X. Fu, & L.S. Maroja. 2017. A day-flashing Photinus firefly (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) from central Panamá: an emergent shift to predator-free space? Insect systematics & Evolution 48: 512-531.

The species described in this paper was first discovered in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
Fireflies in the genus Photinus are well regarded for their luminescent nocturnal courtship displays. Here we report on a new firefly species, Photinus interdius, which is remarkable for its fully diurnal and luminescent courtship protocol. Males slowly flew near the ground searching for receptive females and emitted 800 ms, bright yellow light flashes at 3–4-s intervals. Male flights occurred as early as 13:10 and ceased before 18:00. We sequenced two mitochondrial loci and one genomic locus and combined these with those from 99 specimens representing 45 Photinus and 25 related firefly species. Bayesian inference resulted in a well-resolved phylogeny that placed this new species as the closest relative of, but basal to the Photinusclade. We propose that the adaptive significance of this extraordinary temporal shift in courtship niche is the outcome of a selective landscape that has optimized the trade-off between reduced predation risk and ease of mate-localization.
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Adams, Z.J.O., & P.H.F. Shimabukuro. 2018. A cybercatalogue of American sand fly types (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) deposited at the Natural History Museum, London. Biodiversity Data Journal 6: e24484.

One of the studied specimens represents a historical record from 1950 from Cerro Chucantí, where ADOPTA now owns and manages a private nature reserve.
Background Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) are biting flies involved in the transmission of pathogens, including the protozoan parasite Leishmania amongst human and non-human animals (Rangel and Lainson 2009).
New Information A total of 60 species of American Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae), distributed amongst 16 genera were studied. A checklist of the primary and secondary type specimens held at the Natural History Museum, London (NHMUK), is given and 968 photographs of the specimens and their labels are made available on Scratchpads:
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Bermúdez, S., D. Apanaskevich, & L. Domínguez. 2018. Ixodidae Ticks of Panama. 129 pp. ISBN 978-9962-699-25-5.

The authors of the paper thanked ADOPTA, among other organizations, for helping to provide important materials for the publication.
The presence of 37 species of Ixodidae is reported in Panama, 18 species of the genus Amblyomma, 11 of Ixodes, four of Dermacentor, two of Haemaphysalis and two of Rhipicephalus; four species are in doubt. For each species we present data for geographic distribution, hosts in Panama and morphological characteristics.
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Flores, R., C.M. Taylor, G. McPherson, & A. Ibáñez. 2018. A new epiphytic species of Notopleura (Rubiaceae) from Chucantí Nature Reserve, eastern Panama. Webbia: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Geography 73(2): 195-201.

The new species described in this paper is only known to occur in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
The new species Notopleura sallydavidsoniae R.Flores & C.M.Taylor is here described and illustrated. It can be recognised by the following combination of characters: epiphytic habit, succulent stems and leaves, stipules sheathing at base and free portion ligulate with c. 8–10 glandular setae or appendages, well-developed bracts, five-merous flowers, rather well-developed calyx and fruits with two pyrenes. Eastern Panama is not well known botanically, but is part of the region that is the centre of species diversity for the overall genus as well as the epiphytic subgenus of Notopleura.
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Lanuza-Garay, A., & A.S. Murgas. 2018. Longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) from Darien National Park, Panama. Insecta Mundi 1139.

Some observations mentioned in this paper were made at the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
Darién National Park (PND), a natural connection between South and Central America, is the largest national park not only in Panama but in all of Central America. Due to its strategic geographical situation, it is a place for the interchange of the North and South American fauna, where endemic invertebrates and vertebrates are very abundant. Through the use of malaise traps and light traps placed at different points within the PND, 183 individuals of 87 species of longicorn beetles in the families Cerambycidae and Disteniidae were collected. Also, four species of longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae) are reported for the first time for Panama: Lepturges (Lepturges) proximus Melzer, 1934, Cobelura wappesi Corbett, 2004, Adesmus pirauna Martins and Galileo, 1999 and Helvina lanuginosa Dillon and Dillon, 1945. Cylicasta nysa Dillon and Dillon, 1946 previously recorded in Panama by Hovore (1989) but it is not cited in Monné’s Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the Neotropical Region, being considered a forgotten species of the country. The known prior distributions for each species, collecting methods, and additional information on the collection sites of each specimen are provided.
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Walker, M.J., A. Dorrestein, J.J. Camacho, L.A. Meckler, K.A. Silas, T. Hiller, & D. Haelewaters. 2018. A tripartite survey of hyperparasitic fungi associated with ectoparasitic flies on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a neotropical cloud forest in Panama. Parasite 25, 19.

This study was entirely conducted in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA, and has greatly improved our understanding of the ecosystems there.
The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae), and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%). The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei) and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus). All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%). Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU) sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama), G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus , and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales.
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Bayly, N.J. 2019 Neotropical Flyways Project: Connectivity and Migratory Bottlenecks of Canada’s Declining Migratory Birds. Final Report presented to Environment and Climate Change Canada. SELVA 22pp.

The data gathered for Panama was all gathered by members of ADOPTA’s field team, including Chelina Batista, Jorge Garzon, Luis Paz, Jacobo Ortega, and Guido Berguido.
Results from occupancy surveys of migratory birds done in Costa Rica and Panama. Many at-risk Canadian species were observed, with vital new information on stopover patterns.
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Buitrago-Rosas, D., J.L. Medina, P.L. Castillo-Caballero, J. Ortega, J.L. Garzón, & J.J. Falk. 2019. Highland avian surveys in Cerro Hoya national park (Azuero, Panamá) reveal new range extensions, including a rare hummingbird (Selasphorus sp.). Oritologiá Neotropical 30: 89-97.

One of the authors of this study (Jorge Garzón) is a member of ADOPTA.
Cerro Hoya National Park in Panama (CHNP) is one of the least explored protected areas in southern Mesoamerica. It houses the greatest ecosystem diversity in the degraded Azuero Peninsula, but its inaccessibility hinders expeditions and scientific research. Avian richness in CHNP was previously estimated by combining data from five ornithological expeditions at ca. 225 species. However, the highest altitude areas remained relatively unexplored and some historical records were not verified. We intensively surveyed highlands and foothills of CHNP and identified five new range extensions. One of these included a Selasphorus sp., of which we collected three male (two adults, one immature) and one female specimens. We compared morphology and plumage color patterns of these with closely related species in detail and confirm their likely classification with the endangered Glow-throated Hummingbird (Selasphorus ardens). This species is rare, with few documented sightings, confirmed specimens, and no unambiguous female museum specimen until now. We also confirmed historical records and provide 26 unlisted species (one by an external source) to CHNP. Our results confirm that Cerro Hoya is a highly biodiverse skyisland of Mesoamerica. We urge improved enforcement of its protection in combination with further studies of the ecology and evolutionary processes in this unique region.
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Giaretta, A., T.N.C. Vasconcelos, F.F. Mazine, J.E.Q. Faria, R. Flores, B. Holst, P.T. Sano, & E. Lucas. 2019. Calyx (con)fusion in a hyper-diverse genus: Parallel evolution of unusual flower patterns in Eugenia (Myrtaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 139: 106553.

This study was funded in part by ADOPTA.
Eugenia has a pantropical distribution and comprises ca. 1000 species found mostly in the Neotropics. Recent DNA based phylogenies show that unusual flower morphology of ‘eugenioid’ collections, e.g. fused calices that open by tearing, consistently emerged within Eugenia. These results emphasize a demand to revaluate flower morphology in a phylogenetic context within the genus. A reassessment of calyx fusion in Eugenia and traditionally related genera is here focused on clarification of the systematic relevance of this apparently recurrent characteristic. Twenty-four Eugenia species with some level of calyx fusion in the bud were newly used (one nuclear and four plastid markers) in conjunction with a representative sample of previously sequenced species to recover a time-calibrated Eugenia phylogeny of 86 accessions. Development of the fused calyx was analysed using scanning electron microscopy, differing patterns were re-coded and subsequently phylogenetic character reconstruction was performed. Eugenia was recovered as monophyletic including the traditionally segregated genera Calycorectes and Catinga. Ancestral character reconstruction uncovered free calyx lobes as the ancestral condition. Five development patterns leading to calyx fusion are reported in Eugenia including species with apparently six petals, which contrast with the standard tetramerous flowers. This condition is interpreted as the petaloid pattern, where two external fused calyx lobes cover the bud while two internal calyx lobes are free and petaloid. The fused calyx condition is homoplastic and evolved independently, several times in Eugenia, as did the different development patterns. Data presented here show that systematic incongruence resulting from multiple, independent origins of the fused calyx in Eugenia is further aggravated by an inability to distinguish parallelism and convergence within the recovered patterns.
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Haelewaters, D., & D.H. Pfister. 2019. Morphological species of Gloeandromyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) evaluated using single-locus species delimitation methods. Fungal Systematics and Evolution 3: 19-33.

The new species described in this paper all included individuals collected from the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
In this paper, new species and formae of the genus Gloeandromyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) are described and illustrated. These are: Gloeandromyces dickii sp. nov. on Trichobius joblingi from Nicaragua and Panama; G. pageanus f. alarum f. nov. on Tri. joblingi from Panama; G. pageanus f. polymorphus f. nov. on Tri. dugesioides and Tri. joblingi from Panama and Trinidad; and G. streblae f. sigmomorphus f. nov. on Tri. joblingi from Panama. Gloeandromyces pageanus on Tri. dugesioides from Panama as described in Nova Hedwigia 105 (2017) is referred to as G. pageanus f. pageanus. Support for these descriptions of species and formae comes from phylogenetic reconstruction of the large subunit ribosomal DNA and from the application of species delimitation methods (ABGD, bPTP, GMYC). Host specialization results in phylogenetic segregation by host species in both G. pageanus and G. streblae and this may represent a case of incipient speciation. A second mechanism driving diversity involves position-induced morphological adaptations, leading to the peculiar morphotypes that are associated to growing on a particular position of the integument (G. pageanus f. Alarum, G. streblae f. Sigmomorphus).
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Medina, D., R. Ibáñez, K.R. Lips, & A.J. Crawford. 2019. Amphibian diversity in Serranía de Majé, an isolated mountain range in eastern Panamá. Zookeys 859: 117-130.

This study shows how vital the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA is to amphibians in Panama.
Eastern Panamá is within the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot and supports an understudied amphibian fauna. Here we characterize the amphibian diversity across an elevational gradient in one of the least studied mountain ranges in eastern Panamá, Serranía de Majé. A total of 38 species were found, which represent 17% of all species reported for Panamá. Based on expected richness function and individualbased rarefaction curves, it is estimated that this is an underestimate and that at least 44 amphibian species occur in this area. Members of all three amphibian orders were encountered, represented by ten families and 22 genera, including five species endemic to Central America. Estimated species richness decreased with elevation, and the mid-elevation site supported both lowland and highland species. Our study provides a baseline for understanding the distribution pattern of amphibians in Panamá, for conservation efforts, and for determining disease-induced changes in amphibian communities.
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Ortiz, O.O., R. Flores, G. McPherson, J.F. Carrión, E. Campos-Pineda, & R.M. Baldini. 2019. Additions to the flora of Panama, with comments on plant collections and information gaps. Check List 15(4): 601-627.

This study provides the first record of Hasseltia lateriflora from the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
In the present study, we report 46 new records of vascular plants species from Panama. The species belong to the following families: Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Araceae, Bignoniaceae, Burseraceae, Caryocaraceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Lacistemataceae, Lauraceae, Malpighiaceae, Malvaceae, Marattiaceae, Melastomataceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Orchidaceae, Passifloraceae, Peraceae, Poaceae, Portulacaceae, Ranunculaceae, Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Solanaceae, and Violaceae. Additionally, the status of plant collections in Panama is discussed; we focused on the areas where we identified significant information gaps regarding real assessments of plant biodiversity in the country
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Ortiz, O.O., A. Rivera-Mondragón, L. Pieters, K. Foubert, & C. Cabello-George. 2019. Cecropia telenitida Cuatrec. (Urticaceae: Cecropieae): Phytochemical diversity, chemophenetic implications and new records from Central America. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 86: 103935.

The only area in Central America the focal species of this paper is known to be found is within the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
The Neotropical genus Cecropia is the largest genus of Cecropieae in the Urticaceae family with 61 described species. For many years, the taxonomic study of Cecropia has been based on morphological and anatomical data. However, recent studies have shown that chemical entities present in Cecropia can be used to establish differences between species providing important additional support on its taxonomic classification. The goal of the present study was to contribute to the phytotaxonomic knowledge of this genus to better inform taxonomic decisions. In addition, this is the first time that chemical constituents have been described in the leaves of Cecropia telenitida Cuatrec., a species that until now had not been reported in Central America. We characterized and quantified the polyphenolic composition of the methanol leaf extract of C. telenitida using UPLC-DAD-MS and HPLC-DAD, respectively. Phytochemical analysis showed that this extract was rich in chlorogenic acid and flavone C-glycosides, with isoorientin and isoorientin 2″-O-xyloside as the main compounds. Our data showed a lower chemical diversity and metabolite concentrations than other related species. Morphological, distributional and taxonomic notes, images of the plant and phytochemical comparisons between C. telenitida and selected congeners from Panama are also provided.
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Vargas P., M.G., & M.N. Sánchez de Stapf. 2019. Diversity of herbaceous and sub-shrub plants in Cerro Chucantí, province of Darién. Technociencia 21(2): 69-91.

This survey was entirely carried out within the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
Herbaceous plants influence the dynamics and regeneration of forests. Their study helps us understand the structure of tropical communities and patterns of biodiversity. The present study had the objective of knowing the diversity of herbaceous and sub-shrub plants on the main trail of the Cerro Chucantí Biological Reserve, located in the Serranía del Maje, on the limits of the Darién province and the province of Panama. To do this, an inventory was carried out along the 7 km length, covering 2 m on each side of the trail. Species richness and diversity was also studied in 4 sites at two altitudinal levels, 800 m.a.s.l. and at 1200 m.s.n.m. At each site, 4 plots of 5 m × 10 m were established. Once the plots were established, the number of individuals per species was recorded in each one of them. In total, 54 species of herbaceous plants and some subshrub species, belonging to 23 families and 41 genera, were inventoried. The species richness for the two altitudinal levels is very similar, since 10 species were recorded at 800 m.a.s.l. and 12, at 1200 m.s.n.m. The species composition between the two altitudinal levels is very different, only two species share out of the 19 recorded in the 16 plots. The research generated information that will serve as a baseline or guide to develop future management and conservation programs for this forest.
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Batista, A., K. Mebert, M. Miranda, O. Garcés, R. Fuentes, & M. Ponce. 2020. Endemism on a threatened sky island: new and rare species of herpetofauna from Cerro Chucantí, Eastern Panama. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 14(2): 27-46.

This study provides the the first comprehensive examination of the herpetofauna of the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
Cerro Chucantí in the Darién province is the highest peak in the Majé Mountains, an isolated massif in Eastern Panama. In addition to common herpetological species such as the Terraranas, Pristimantis cruentus, and P. caryophyllaceus, rare species such as Pristimantis moro and Strabomantis bufoniformisoccur as well. Recent expeditions to Cerro Chucantí revealed a remarkably rich diversity of 41 amphibian (19% of the total in Panama) and 35 reptile (13% of the total in Panama) species, including new and endemic species such as a salamander, Bolitoglossa chucantiensis, a frog Diasporus majeensis and a snake, Tantilla berguidoi. Here, an up-to-date summary is presented on the herpetological species observed on this sky island (an isolated mountain habitat with endemic species), including several species without definitive taxonomic allocation, new elevation records, and an analysis of species diversity.
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Borges, A., B. Lomonte, Y. Angulo, H. Acosta de Patiño, J.M. Pascale, R. Otero, R.J. Miranda, L. De Sousa, M.R. Graham, A. Gómez, P.P.O. Pardal, E. Ishikawa, F. Bonilla, A. Castillo, R. A. Machado de Avila, J.P. Gómez, & J.A. Caro-López. 2020. Venom diversity in the Neotropical scorpion genus Tityus: Implications for antivenom design emerging from molecular and immunochemical analyses across endemic areas of scorpionism. Acta Tropica 204: 105346.

One of the specimens for this study (Tityus festae) was obtained in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
Scorpions of the Neotropical genus Tityus are responsible for most severe envenomations in the Caribbean, South America, and Lower Central America (LCA). Although Tityus is taxonomically complex, contains high toxin polymorphism, and produces variable clinical manifestations, treatment is limited to antivenoms produced against species with restricted distributions. In this study, we explored the compositional and antigenic diversity of Tityus venoms to provide improved guidelines for the use of available antivenoms at a broader geographic scale. We used immunoblotting, competitive ELISA, and in vivo studies to compare reactivity against commercial antivenoms from Brazil, Venezuela, and Mexico, as well as MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, cDNA sequencing,and phylogenetic analyses to assess venom sodium channel-active toxin (NaTx) content from medically important Tityus populations inhabiting Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, andVenezuela. Additionally, we raised rabbit antibodies against Tityus venoms from LCA to test for cross-reactivity with congeneric species. The results suggest that Tityus spp. possess high venom antigenic diversity, underlying the existence of four toxinological regions in Tropical America, based on venom composition and immunochemical criteria: LCA/Colombia/Amazonia (Region I), Venezuela (Region II), southeast South America(Region III), and a fourth region encompassing species related to toxinologically divergent Tityus cerroazul . Importantly, our molecular and cross-reactivity results highlight the need for new antivenoms against species inhabiting Region I, where scorpions may produce venoms that are not significantly reactive against available antivenoms.

Mijango-Ramos, Z., M. Sánchez de Stapf, C. Vergara, & J. Mendieta. 2020. Diversity of trees and shrubs in the Cerro Chucantí private reserve in Darién, Panama. Technociencia 22(1): 17-36.

This study expands our knowledge of the plant community within the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
Cloud forests play a fundamental role in the maintenance and quality of water, in addition to generating habitats for animals. The structure and characteristics of these forests make them "hot-spots" of biodiversity and centers of endemism. In this study, the alpha diversity of a plant community was calculated and it was evaluated in a very general way, if height influences the richness of species in a Cloud Forest in the province of Darién. Lower species richness was expected as height increased. For this, the diversity of trees, shrubs, palms and arboreal ferns was calculated in 0.4 ha and the richness of species per plot was evaluated in two altitudinal levels. It was found that the diversity of species is very high compared to other cloud forests in the tropics, in addition, the species did not show trends of inequality and dominance. An influence of height on species richness was not observed (p = 0.96). However, when we analyzed the species composition by zones, only 2 species were shared with each other. This suggests that height does not clearly explain the species richness in Chucantí and that it could be explained by other environmental factors.
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Ortiz, O.O., R. Quijano, R. Fuentes, G. Berguido, & R. Moreno. 2020. Report of a serendipitous encounter with a melanistic Jaguar in Darién (3 May 2019). Mesoamericana 24(1): 34-40.

This encounter occurred while performing ADOPTA-financed fieldwork for another project. Our founder/director (Guido Berguido) is one of the authors of this paper.
This article describes a unique with an all-black (melanistic) jaguar in the remote Darién province of Panama.
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Garzon, J.L., and A. Castillo. 2021. First nest report of varied solitaire (Myadestes coloratus), an endemic bird species of Panama and Colombia. Technociencia 23(1): 332-338.

The nests described in this study were discovered in the Cerro Chucantí Private Nature Reserve owned and managed by ADOPTA.
Here we present the first description of nests for the Varied Solitaire Myadestes coloratus , a regional endemic species (Panama and Colombia). We found two nests in Cerro Chucantí Natural Private Reserve (CCNPR), the first nest was seen on May 6, 2019 with three hatchlings inside and the second on May 9, 2020 with three eggs. The nests were constructed out of green mosses and foliaceus liverworts over tree trunks covered with moss, they were cup shaped, at 1.3 and 1.5 meters high. The GPS coordinates of the nests were (8° 47’44.8” N, 78°27’47.4 W, 1276 m) and (8° 48’09.5” N, 78°27’37.0 W, 1393 m) respectively. This report represents the first for this species which is under the Endangered (EN) category of Panama´s List of threatened species of Fauna and Flora by Ministerio de Ambiente.
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